The following is courtesy the American Polygraph Association Web Site
The following CVSA research was compiled by Donald Krapohl.
Various investigative techniques for detecting deception have appeared in the past 80 years. Some were developed by scientists and researchers, like reaction time tests, the polygraph, and brain wave methods. Others were proffered by manufacturers without the help of researchers, such as the B&W lie detector and the various voice stress devices.
The most recent method being heralded as the new lie detector is the Computer Voice Stress Analyzer (CVSA). What separates the CVSA from previous voice stress methods is that the display is on a computer screen, versus on paper. There are no validated algorithms or scoring systems, or sophisticated analytical methods. These shortcomings have not prevented the manufacturer from making remarkable claims regarding the efficacy of its product.
But, are they true? Those of us in the detection of deception profession would like to believe it, because switching to this new device would allow us to better serve our clients and agencies in a shorter time. Before we accept the self-endorsements of the manufacturer, it is best that we first look at what scientists have to say.
Below is a list of the university-grade research studies that have investigated voice stress as a deception detection approach. Some studies looked at the CVSA device in particular, while others investigated whether voice stress analysis in general could be used to detect stress or deception. Copies of these studies can be obtained at many university libraries.
Brenner, M., Branscomb, H., & Schwartz, G. E. (1979). Psychological
stress evaluator: Two tests of a vocal measure. Psychophysiology, 16(4), 351-357.
Cestaro, V.L. (1995). A Comparison Between
Decision Accuracy Rates Obtained Using the Polygraph Instrument and the Computer Voice Stress Analyzer (CVSA) in the Absence
of Jeopardy. (DoDPI95-R-0002). Fort McClellan, AL: Department of Defense Polygraph Institute.
DoDPI Research Division Staff, Meyerhoff, J.L., Saviolakis, G.A.,
Koenig M.L., & Yourick, D.L. (In press). Physiological and Biochemical Measures of Stress Compared to Voice Stress Analysis
Using the Computer Voice Stress Analyzer (CVSA). (DoDPI01-R-0001). Department of Defense Polygraph Institute.
Fuller, B.F. (1984). Reliability
and validity of an interval measure of vocal stress. Psychological Medicine, 14(1), 159-166
Janniro, M. J., & Cestaro, V. L. (1996). Effectiveness of Detection of Deception Examinations
Using the Computer Voice Stress Analyzer. (DoDPI95-P-0016). Fort McClellan, AL : Department of Defense Polygraph Institute.
Hollien, H., Geison, L., & Hicks, J. W., Jr. (1987). Voice stress
analysis and lie detection. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 32(2), 405-418.
F. S. (1978). An experimental comparison of the psychological stress evaluator and the galvanic skin response in detection
of deception. Journal of Applied Psychology, 63(3), 338-344.
Horvath, F. S. (1979).
Effect of different motivational instructions on detection of deception with the psychological stress evaluator and the galvanic
skin response. Journal of Applied Psychology, 64(3, June), 323-330.
Kubis, J. F. (1973). Comparison of Voice Analysis and Polygraph As Lie Detection Procedures. (Technical Report
No. LWL-CR-03B70, Contract DAAD05-72-C-0217). Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: U.S. Army Land Warfare Laboratory.
Lynch, B. E., & Henry, D. R. (1979). A validity study of the psychological
stress evaluator. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 11(1), 89-94.
O'Hair, D., Cody, M. J., & Behnke, R. R. (1985). Communication apprehension and vocal stress as indices
of deception. The Western Journal of Speech Communication, 49, 286-300.
O'Hair, D., Cody,
M. J., Wang, S., & Chao, E. Y. (1990). Vocal stress and deception detection among Chinese. Communication Quarterly, 38(2,
Suzuki, A., Watanabe, S., Takeno, Y., Kosugi,
T., & Kasuya, T. (1973). Possibility of detecting deception by voice analysis. Reports of the National Research Institute
of Police Science, 26(1, February), 62-66.
Timm, H. W. (1983). The efficacy of the
psychological stress evaluator in detecting deception. Journal of Police Science and Administration, 11(1), 62-68.
Waln, R. F., &
Downey, R. G. (1987). Voice stress analysis: Use of telephone recordings. Journal of Business and Psychology , 1(4), 379-389.
Please remember, a CVSA or a "Voice Stress Lie detector" is NOT a Polygraph Instrument. Nor is it a POLYGRAPH Exam! Know the difference.